Puro Pakualaman is the most recent of the four Central Java kratons. Like the Mangkunegaran sub-region in Solo which was established by a junior line of the Paku Buwono dynasty, the Pakualaman is a separate principality within the territory of Yogyakarta, independent yet acknowledging the seniority of the principal kraton of Yogyakarta Hadiningrat.
chickens in Java is estimated to be 106 million birds reared by approximately 60-70% of Java's population of 135 million. Backyard poultry in Java lack basic hygiene measures, mixes of different